Mixtures do not combine chemically, so we can use physical methods to separate their components.
Magnetism is the ability of a substance to either be attracted or repelled by a magnet.
We can use a magnet to separate the iron filings from the sand.
Filtration is a method used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid using a filter paper.
Evaporation is a method used to separate a soluble solid from a liquid. Once all the water has evaporated, the salt will be left behind.
Distance, Speed and Time
Speed is how fast an object travels.
The units of measurements include miles per hours (mph), kilometers per hour (km/h) and meters per second (m/s).
We measure speed by finding the distance an object travels in one unit of time. To calculate speed we divide the distance travelled by the time taken.
How to make a volcano
A volcano is an opening in the Earth’s crust that allows magma, hot ash and gases to escape. Volcanoes can look like mountains or small hills, depending on what type they are.
Magma is molten rock – rock that is so hot it has turned into liquid. When magma reaches the surface of the Earth it is called lava and comes out of the volcano as a volcanic eruption, along with gases and ash.
The function and structure of the heart
The heart is the strong muscle which pumps blood throughout your body.
It is a hollow muscle, about the size and shape of a fist. It is actually made up of two separate pumps.
It is called an involuntary muscle because it works without you ever having to think about it working.
The heart is located between the lungs and behind your rib cage.
The heart has four chambers in it (right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle).
The muscular wall called the septum divides the two sides of the heart.
Blood can’t pass from one side to the other.
Living things interact
Ecology: is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms to each other and their surroundings.
Habitat : A place in an ecosystem where a population lives.
Limiting factors: Things that prevent a population from growing any larger.
Adaptations: A body part or behavior that helps an animal meets its needs in its environment.
Competition : The contest among organisms for the limited resources of an ecosystem.
Water cycle is the movement of water (water vapor) from the earth surface to the atmosphere and back again (water liquid).
Processes of the water cycle: Evaporation. Condensation. Precipitation. Infiltration.
Evaporation is the process in which liquid water changes to gas (water vapor).
Condensation is the process in which water vapor (gas) changes to water (liquid).
Precipitation is anything as (rain, snow, sleet, hail) falling from the atmosphere to the earth.
Infiltration water is the underground water that falls from the atmosphere and goes through sand and rocks.
Parallel circuit which has two or more paths for the current to travel. If a lamp ‘blows’ or a component is disconnected from one parallel wire, the components on different wires keep working.
Unlike a series circuit, the lamps stay bright if you add more lamps in parallel.
Parallel circuits are useful if you want everything to work, even if one component has failed. This is why our homes are wired up with parallel circuits.
Series circuit which has only one path for the current to travel.
If a lamp ‘blows’ or a component is disconnected, all the components stop working.
If you put more lamps into a series circuit the lamps will be dimmer than before.
Series circuits are useful if you want a warning that one of the components in the circuit has failed.
They also use less wiring than parallel circuits.
How to memorize the science definitions
An easy way to memorize the science definitions.
If there is a link between two things or situations, there is a relationship between them, for example because one thing causes or affects the other.
This method relies on creating a link between the meanings of words and certain movements.
When the student makes these movements, he quickly calls the definitions from his memory.
Ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms to each other and their surroundings. Habitat: A place in an ecosystem where a population lives. Limiting factors: Things that prevent a population from growing any larger. Adaptations: A body part or behavior that helps an animal meets its needs in its environment. Competition: The contest among organisms for the limited resources of an ecosystem. Mutualism: The symbiotic relationship that benefits both organisms involved. Commensalism: A symbiotic relationship that benefits one organism and doesn’t harm or help the other organism. Parasitism: A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed.